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John Moritz Library @ NMC: Websites

General Rules

If you mention an entire website without referring to specific information within, you do not list it on the reference page. Instead, you refer to the website in your body's text (in sentence) and include the website URL (in parentheses).

An excellent source of demographic data is freely available on the Census website (

Apps, software, and other programs may be treated similarly. For apps and software, you do not have to list the URL.


News Sites

Article from News Site

Epstein, D. (2017, February 22). When evidence says no, but doctors say yes. ProPublica.

Author. (Full Date). Article title in lowercase. Website. URL

Article from Online Newspaper

APA treats online newspaper sites like The New York Times differently than CNN. To us, they might feel the same: news articles in digital format. However, the sources are different: NYT is a long-running newspaper and CNN is a television news network that branched out when the World Wide Web became a common way for people to access information.

Citing an online article from a newspaper is similar to other periodicals: Author, A. A. (Date). Article title in lowercase. Newspaper in Italics. URL

Burbach, C. (2021, March 2). 'This is a good day for us': Omaha-area teachers to get COVID vaccinations on Saturday. Omaha World-Herald.


Blogs & Personal Sites

Blog Post

Watson, A. (2021, January 26). Students switch their screens every 19 seconds. Sort of ... Learning & the Brain.

The blog post is treated similar to an article from a news website. 

Author. (Full Date). Article title in lowercase. Website. URL


Dictionaries & Encyclopedias

Dictionary, Thesaurus

Dating these sources can be tricky. If a date is provided (usually bottom or top of entry), include it in your citation. If it is continuously updated but does not appear to be archived or stable or list a date, then you will use (n.d.) as the year of publication and your retrieval date.

Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Caprice. dictionaryRetrieved December 16, 2019, from

Your in-text citation:  (Merriam-Webster, n.d.)


The below example is from Encyclopedia Britannica. The author is listed, but not the date. 

Zelazko, A. (n.d.). Was Santa Claus a real person? Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved December 16, 2019, from 

This other entry from EB does not list an individual author. The author then becomes the encyclopedia/organization itself. While no date is immediately apparent, clicking on See Article History includes all versions of the article, so you do not need to include a retrieval date.

Encyclopaedia Britannica. (n.d.). Santa Claus: Legendary figure. Retrieved from



Wikipedia (archived entry)

Groundhog Day. (2021, February 10). In Wikipedia.

Article/entry title. (Full date). In Wikipedia. URL

Cite the archived version of the page, so readers see the same version you used. To do so, click on View History in the upper right corner of the article and then the time/date of the version you used. If a wiki does not provide permanent links to the archived versions you used, include the URL for the entry and the retrieval date (see below).

Wikipedia (non-archived entry)

Groundhog Day. (2021, February 10). In Wikipedia. Retrieved February 17, 2021, from