Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

John Moritz Library: Media

Film or Video

Basic Structure

Contributor, C.C. (Date). Title of work [Description of format]. Production Company. URL.

Author/Creator Date Title Publisher/Source URL
Director, D.D. (Director). (Year). Title of work [Film]. Production Company. https://xxxx
Producer, P.P. (Producer). (2019, August 2). Title of work [Documentary]. University Name. https://xxxx
Uploader, U.U. (Uploader). (2018, May 1). Title of work [Video]. YouTube. https://xxxx
In-Text Citations

In-text citations follow the usual author/creator-year structure: (Jackson, 2001) or Jackson (2001). Within your narrative or the body of your text, you can identify the format of the media itself. For example:

               In the movie adaptation of The Fellowship of the Ring (Jackson, 2001), the inciting event ...

Notice the title is capitalized, unlike in the full reference. 

Quoting from Video

Whenever quoting from audiovisual (video) work, you'll need to provide a time stamp with your quotation (like a page number) in the body of your text. You will not use the time stamp in your reference list. For example: 

     Fogarty (2014) uses a dog chewing a ball scenario to explain how to use who versus whom. For 'who,' the dog is the subject, the one doing the action (chewing the ball). "When you're talking about the target of the action, you use whom," Fogarty explains (2014, 0:44), with an example slide of "The dog chewed whom?" The ball is whom, the target or object of the action.

Episode Within a Series or Media Part of a Greater Whole

Episodes or videos within a greater whole are treated similar to book chapters or anthologies. You will include both the title of the particular episode/video and the greater series. 

Note: Include writer(s) and the director for the episode and include the roles in parentheses after each contributor's name. This may include "Writer," "Director," "Executive Director," etc. If one person did both jobs, use (Writer & Director). Cite the URL for the log-in page rather than the URL for the actual media. Exclude the URL if the episode was viewed on cable television rather than online. 

Writer's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Writer), & Director's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Director). (Year the episode was originally aired, Month Day if known). Title of episode (Season Number, Episode Number) [TV series episode]. In Executive Producer's First Initial. Last Name (Executive Producer), Television series nameProduction Company
Greenwalt, D. (Director). (1998). Homecoming (Season 3, Episode 5) [TV series episode]. In Whedon, J. (Producer), Buffy the Vampire Slayer. Warner Brothers.
In-Text Paraphrase (Greenwalt, 1998)


YouTube | Streaming | TED Talk

YouTube or Other Streaming Video

Note: The person or group that uploads a video to YouTube is credited as the author, even if they did not create or own the work. 

Let's say your instructor uploads a lecture from a previous instructor to YouTube and includes the instructor's name, the course, title of the lecture, and date it was given. Your instinct would be to cite that information and include the YouTube URL in your citation. However, APA dictates you use your instructor's username, the date given on the YouTube video (date it was uploaded). You may, however, give more information about origin and contributors of the video in the body of your paper.


Poster's name known:

Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial. of person who posted the video if known. [User name that posted the video] . (Year video was posted, Month Day). Title of video [Video]. Name of Streaming Service. URL


Group author:

User name that posted the video. (Year video was posted, Month Day). Title of video [Video]. Name of Streaming Service. URL

Example AWUC. (2015, August 18). An introduction to cohesion in academic writing [Video]. YouTube.
In-Text Paraphrase

(Creator's Last Name, Year)


(User name, Year)

Ex: (AWUC, 2015)

Username vs. Real Name

If the uploader's real name is known, you will include it in your citation along with the username. If the username's true name is indicated on your source, you list it first just like an author and then add the username in [brackets].

Grammar Girl Example:

Fogarty, M. [Grammar Girl]. (2010, October 20). Where do periods go in quotations? [Video]. YouTube.


In-Text Citations

For your in-text citations, you will then list the uploader's real name (e.g., Fogarty for Grammar Girl) and follow the same author-date format.

TED Talk From the TED Website

Note: When the TED Talk comes from TED's website, use the name of the speaker as the author. 

Format Speaker. (Year, Month Day). Title [Video]. TED Conferences. URL 
Cuddy, A. (2012, June). Your body language may shape who you are [Video]. TED Conferences.



Wray, B. (2019). How climate change affects your mental health [Video]. TED Residency. 


In-Text Paraphrase

(Last Name of Speaker, Year)

Ex: (Cuddy, 2012)

TED Talk From YouTube

Note: When the TED Talk is on YouTube, list the owner of the YouTube account (here, TED) as the author to aid in retrieval.

Format TED. (Year, Month Day). Title | Speaker [Video]. YouTube. URL 
TED. (2019, November 13). The danger of AI is weirder than you think | Janelle Shane [Video]. YouTube.
In-Text Paraphrase

(Account Owner, Year)

Ex: (TED, 2019)


Note: Podcasts are generally an audio-only format available on direct websites or aggregated through various platforms. You will also see podcasts on YouTube; in those cases, use the YouTube reference format. If you access the podcast via an app (like Google Music or PodcastAddict), do not include a URL.

Podcast Episode

List the host as author. Like a TV episode, you will include the episode number after the title. If the podcast does not number its episodes, then you will not include it.

Director/Producer/Host's Last Name, First intial. Second Initial if Given. (Role in the production e.g. Host, Director, Producer) (Year podcast was released, Month Day if given). Title of podcast episode: Subtitle if given (episode number if known) [Audio podcast episode]. In Title of Podcast. Publisher. URL if known

With Episode Number:

Tayler, H., Sanderson, B., Kowal, M. R., & Wells, D. (2017, February 5). Variations on third person (No. 12.6) [Audio podcast episode]. In Writing excuses


No Episode Number:

Nadworny, E. (2019, September 4). How to do well (and be happy!) in college [Audio podcast episode]. In How to Succeed at College. NPR.


In-Text Paraphrase

(Director/Producer/Host's Last Name, Year)

Ex: (Nadworny, 2019)

Cite Entire Podcast

List the host of the podcast as the author. If executive producers are known, list them along with their role in parentheses. Designate if this is an audio or video podcast. For example: 

Raz, G. (2012-present). TED radio hour [Audio podcast].

 Library staff are available  Monday- Friday 8:00 a.m. - 4:00 pm

    Schedule an in-person or virtual appointment with a librarian   

 Call 402.354.7251  or  Email