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Film or Video

Basic Structure

Contributor, C.C. (Date). Title of work [Description of format]. Production Company. URL.

Director, D.D. (Director). (Year). Title of work [Film]. Production Company. https://xxxx
Producer, P.P. (Producer). (2019, August 2). Title of work [Documentary]. University Name. https://xxxx
Uploader, U.U. (Uploader). (2018, May 1). Title of work [Video]. YouTube. https://xxxx

Quoting from a Video

Whenever quoting from audiovisual (video) work, you'll need to provide a time stamp with your quotation (like a page number) in the body of your text. You will not use the time stamp in your reference list. For example: 

     Fogarty (2014) uses a dog chewing a ball scenario to explain how to use who versus whom. For 'who,' the dog is the subject, the one doing the action (chewing the ball). "When you're talking about the target of the action, you use whom," Fogarty explains (2014, 0:44), with an example slide of "The dog chewed whom?" The ball is whom, the target or object of the action.


Episodes or videos within a greater whole are treated similar to book chapters or anthologies. You will include both the title of the particular episode/video and the greater series. 

Note: Include writer(s) and the director for the episode and include the roles in parentheses after each contributor's name. This may include "Writer," "Director," "Executive Director," etc. If one person did both jobs, use (Writer & Director). Cite the URL for the log-in page rather than the URL for the actual media. Exclude the URL if the episode was viewed on cable television rather than online. 

Writer's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Writer), & Director's Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Director). (Year the episode was originally aired, Month Day if known). Title of episode (Season Number, Episode Number) [TV series episode]. In Executive Producer's First Initial. Last Name (Executive Producer), Television series nameProduction Company
Greenwalt, D. (Director). (1998). Homecoming (Season 3, Episode 5) [TV series episode]. In Whedon, J. (Producer), Buffy the Vampire Slayer. Warner Brothers.
In-Text Paraphrase (Greenwalt, 1998)


YouTube or Streaming Video


Poster's name known:

Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial. of person who posted the video if known. [User name that posted the video] . (Year video was posted, Month Day). Title of video [Video]. Name of Streaming Service. URL


Group author:

User name that posted the video. (Year video was posted, Month Day). Title of video [Video]. Name of Streaming Service. URL

AWUC. (2015, August 18). An introduction to cohesion in academic writing [Video]. YouTube.
In-Text Paraphrase

(Creator's Last Name, Year)


(User name, Year)

Ex: (AWUC, 2015)


TED Talk From the TED Website
Format Speaker. (Year, Month Day). Title [Video]. TED Conferences. URL 
Cuddy, A. (2012, June). Your body language may shape who you are [Video]. TED Conferences.
In-Text Paraphrase

(Last Name of Speaker, Year)

Ex: (Cuddy, 2012)

TED Talk From YouTube
Format TED. (Year, Month Day). Title | Speaker [Video]. YouTube. URL 
TED. (2019, November 13). The danger of AI is weirder than you think | Janelle Shane [Video]. YouTube.
In-Text Paraphrase

(Account Owner, Year)

Ex: (TED, 2019)



Director/Producer/Host's Last Name, First intial. Second Initial if Given. (Role in the production e.g. Host, Director, Producer) (Year podcast was released, Month Day if given). Title of podcast episode: Subtitle if given (episode number if known) [Audio podcast episode]. In Title of Podcast. Publisher. URL if known

With Episode Number:

Tayler, H., Sanderson, B., Kowal, M. R., & Wells, D. (2017, February 5). Variations on third person (No. 12.6) [Audio podcast episode]. In Writing excuses


No Episode Number:

Nadworny, E. (2019, September 4). How to do well (and be happy!) in college [Audio podcast episode]. In How to Succeed at College. NPR.
In-Text Paraphrase

(Director/Producer/Host's Last Name, Year)

Ex: (Nadworny, 2019)

Cite Entire Podcast

List the host of the podcast as the author. If executive producers are known, list them along with their role in parentheses. Designate if this is an audio or video podcast. For example: 

Raz, G. (2012-present). TED radio hour [Audio podcast].

Username vs Real Name

If the uploader's real name is known, you will include it in your citation along with the username. If the username's true name is indicated on your source, you list it first just like an author and then add the username in [brackets].

Grammar Girl Example:

Fogarty, M. [Grammar Girl]. (2010, October 20). Where do periods go in quotations? [Video]. YouTube.


In-Text Citations

For your in-text citations, you will then list the uploader's real name (e.g., Fogarty for Grammar Girl) and follow the same author-date format.

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